Bioeletroquímica (Bioelectrochemistry)


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First page translated of my article  #Bioelectrochemistry

A Serial Conductometric Titration in a Bacterial Suspension with a Gradient of Sodium and Potassium under Intracellular or Extracellular Proportions and Covering all Tonicity's in Relation to Human Cell

ABSTRACT 
This article prove the different ionic leak or absorption of the bacterial species Staphylococcus Aureus or Escherichia Coli in a serial titration with gradients of Na+ and K+ covering tonicity’s (≤ or ≥ than 300 mOsm/L) and under intracellular or extracellular proportions. By measuring the electrical conductometry of solutions. Being possible to differentiate the species by degree of influence at the same level of gradient, proving that larger or smaller bacterial permeability is relate to the degree of leak or absorption of ions in the solution, which directly influence the conductometry. Besides the bacterial contribution to decrease of entropy of the system, proven through a statistically difference between titrations with bacteria and without bacteria of the standard deviation of temperature and conductometry. Which is in the case of titrations without bacteria most of the time significantly higher, what therefore indicates a less order solution and a higher entropy, unlike titrations with bacteria. It is possible to say which bacterial species decreases more the entropy of the system. 

Keywords: Staphylococcus Aureus; Escherichia Coli; Conductometric Titration; Serial Titration; Bacterial Suspension; Sodium; Potassium; Tonicity; Hypotonic; Isotonic; Hypertonic; Entropy; Biological Membrane Permeability; Ionic Leak; Ionic Absorption; Osmolarity

1. Introduction 
‘‘The widespread struggle for existence of animated beings, is the struggle for entropy, that becomes available through the transition of energy from the hot sun to the cold Earth’’ Boltzmann 1886. ‘‘Therefore, the stratagem that the organisms uses to stay stationary in a very high level of ordering  low level of entropy) actually consists of continuously absorbs ordering of the environment ... plants ... of course, manage their most powerful supply of negative entropy in sunlight’’ Schrödinger 1944 [35].
*Bachelor of Biomedical Science – Researcher Experiment.

The cell membrane is a thin insulating layer that separates two saline solutions, being capable of maintaining a gradient of Na+ and Cl- eleven times greater in the extracellular medium in relation to its intracellular. 
This is possible because of the permeability of the cell membrane is inverse to the driving force of the ion, for the Na+ which has a driving force of 130mV its permeability is low, however to the K+ which has a driving force of 20mV its permeability is higher. Consequently, the intracellular potassium concentration is greater, which contributed to the cellular tumescence (stability) due to its low driving force, the largest amount of intracellular anions is proteic, which also contributed to cellular tumescence [35].
Bacteria are even stronger in maintaining a gradient, in its intracellular medium are capable of concentrate solutes to a osmotic pressure point equivalent to (15-20 atmospheres) [39]. This difference is due to a cell wall of the bacteria, which allows a better resistance to more intense gradients in comparison to human red blood cell [4]. The contribution for the conductometry of the K+ is always greater than Na+, because of the equivalent conductance of this ions (K+ = 73.5 Siemens/cm2 > Na+ = 50 Siemens/cm2) established at the temperature of 25ºC [29].....






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